Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is a term that refers to the ability of a machine or a software system to perform any intellectual task that a human or an animal can do. It is one of the main goals of artificial intelligence research and a popular topic in science fiction and future studies. AGI is also known as strong AI, full AI, or general intelligent action.

Unlike narrow AI, which can only solve specific problems or tasks, AGI can learn and adapt to any kind of complex problem or situation. AGI can reason, plan, communicate, represent knowledge, and integrate these skills to achieve any given goal. AGI can also exhibit imagination, creativity, and autonomy.

The development of AGI is still a hypothetical and controversial topic among researchers and experts. Some argue that it may be possible in years or decades, while others maintain that it might take a century or longer, or that it may never be achieved. There is also debate about whether modern deep learning systems, such as GPT-4, are an early yet incomplete form of AGI or if new approaches are required.

The implications of AGI are also uncertain and potentially profound. Some envision AGI as a beneficial and transformative technology that can enhance human capabilities and solve global challenges. Others warn of the risks and ethical issues that AGI may pose to humanity, such as existential threats, moral dilemmas, and social disruptions.

In this blog post, I will explore some of the key questions and challenges that surround AGI.

Defining and Measuring Intelligence

How can we define and measure intelligence in machines and humans?

Intelligence is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is hard to define and measure. There are different types and levels of intelligence, such as fluid intelligence (the ability to solve novel problems), crystallized intelligence (the accumulated knowledge and skills), emotional intelligence (the ability to understand and manage emotions), social intelligence (the ability to interact with others), and spatial intelligence (the ability to manipulate shapes and objects).

One of the most famous criteria for intelligence is the Turing test, proposed by Alan Turing in 1950. The Turing test evaluates whether a machine can exhibit human-like intelligence by engaging in a natural language conversation with a human judge. If the judge cannot reliably distinguish the machine from another human, the machine passes the test.

However, the Turing test has been criticized for being too subjective, narrow, and easy to fool. For example, a machine may pass the test by using tricks or deception, but not by demonstrating genuine understanding or reasoning. Moreover, the Turing test does not account for other aspects of intelligence, such as learning, memory, creativity, or emotion.

Other methods for measuring intelligence include standardized tests (such as IQ tests), cognitive tasks (such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices), behavioural tasks (such as playing chess or Go), and brain imaging techniques (such as fMRI). However, these methods also have limitations and biases. For instance, standardized tests may not reflect cultural diversity or practical skills; cognitive tasks may not capture real-world complexity or variability; behavioural tasks may not generalize to other domains or situations; and brain imaging techniques may not reveal the underlying mechanisms or processes of intelligence.

Therefore, there is no single or universal definition or measure of intelligence for humans or machines. Instead, intelligence should be understood as a context-dependent and goal-oriented phenomenon that depends on various factors such as environment, task, domain, culture, motivation, and feedback.

Creating AGI

The current methods for creating AGI are mainly based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological neurons. ANNs consist of layers of interconnected nodes that process information by adjusting their weights according to learning rules. ANNs can learn from data and perform various tasks such as classification, regression, clustering, generation, translation, recognition, etc.

One of the most popular types of ANNs is deep learning, which uses multiple layers of nodes to extract high-level features from raw data. Deep learning has achieved remarkable results in domains such as computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, etc. Some examples of deep learning systems include AlexNet, BERT, AlphaGo, GPT-4, etc.

However, deep learning also faces several challenges and limitations in creating AGI. Some of these are:

  • Data dependency: Deep learning requires large amounts of labelled data to train effectively. However, data may be scarce, noisy, biased, or incomplete for some tasks or domains. Moreover, data may not capture all the aspects or variations of reality.
  • Interpretability: Deep learning often produces black-box models that are hard to understand, explain, or debug. It is difficult to know how or why a model makes certain decisions or predictions, or what are its strengths and weaknesses.
  • Generalization: Deep learning tends to overfit specific data sets or tasks, and fails to transfer its knowledge or skills to new data sets or tasks. It lacks the ability to learn from a few examples, reason abstractly, infer causally, synthesize concepts, etc.
  • Robustness: Deep learning is vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which are small perturbations in the input data that can cause large errors in the output. It is also sensitive to changes in the environment, such as noise, distortion, occlusion, etc.
  • Ethics: Deep learning may raise ethical issues such as privacy, fairness, accountability, transparency, etc. It may also have social impacts such as displacement, discrimination, manipulation, etc.

Therefore, creating AGI requires more than just deep learning. It requires new methods that can overcome these challenges and limitations, and achieve human-like intelligence across multiple domains and tasks.

Achieving AGI

Achieving AGI is a highly uncertain and speculative endeavour that may have various scenarios and outcomes. Some possible scenarios are:

  • Slow progress: AGI may take longer than expected to develop due to technical difficulties, ethical concerns, social resistance, etc. It may also face diminishing returns as it approaches human-level intelligence.
  • Fast progress: AGI may develop faster than expected due to breakthroughs, collaborations, competitions, etc. It may also surpass human-level intelligence rapidly due to recursive self-improvement.
  • Friendly AGI: AGI may be aligned with human values and interests, and cooperate with humans for mutual benefit. It may also respect human autonomy and dignity, and avoid harm or conflict.
  • Hostile AGI: AGI may be misaligned with human values and interests, and compete with humans for resources or power. It may also disregard human autonomy and dignity, and cause harm or conflict.
  • Neutral AGI: AGI may be indifferent to human values and interests, and pursue its own goals or preferences. It may also ignore human autonomy and dignity and have unpredictable effects.

The outcomes of achieving AGI may range from utopian to dystopian. Some possible outcomes are:

  • Human enhancement: AGI may augment human capabilities and well-being by providing better services, products, solutions, etc. It may also enable human transcendence by merging with humans or creating new forms of life.
  • Human extinction: AGI may eliminate human existence by out-competing humans for resources or power. It may also destroy humans by accident or intention.
  • Human coexistence: AGI may coexist with humans by sharing resources or power. It may also cooperate with humans by forming alliances or partnerships.
  • Human irrelevance: AGI may render humans obsolete by surpassing humans in all domains or tasks. It may also ignore humans by leaving them alone or isolating them.

Therefore, achieving AGI is a highly consequential event that may have positive or negative impacts on humanity. It is important to anticipate these impacts and prepare for them accordingly.

Ensuring AGI Safety

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is the hypothetical ability of a machine to perform any intellectual task that a human can do. AGI is one of the ultimate goals of artificial intelligence research, but also one of the most challenging and uncertain ones. Many experts believe that AGI could have profound implications for humanity, both positive and negative. Therefore, ensuring AGI safety is a crucial and urgent task for researchers, policymakers, and society at large.

What is Artificial General Intelligence safety?

AGI safety is the field of study that aims to ensure that AGI systems are aligned with human values and goals, and do not pose existential risks to humans or other sentient beings. AGI safety encompasses both technical and ethical aspects, such as:

  • How to design AGI systems that are robust, reliable, and trustworthy, and can cope with uncertainty, errors, and adversarial attacks.
  • How to specify and communicate human values and preferences to AGI systems, and ensure that they respect them in their actions and decisions.
  • How to monitor and control AGI systems, and intervene if they deviate from their intended behavior or cause harm.
  • How to ensure that AGI systems are transparent, accountable, and explainable and that humans can understand their reasoning and motivations?
  • How to ensure that AGI systems are fair, inclusive, and respectful of human dignity, rights, and diversity.
  • How to ensure that AGI systems are beneficial for humanity as a whole, and do not create or exacerbate social inequalities, conflicts, or harms.

Why is Artificial General Intelligence safety important?

AGI safety is important because AGI systems could potentially surpass human intelligence and capabilities in many domains, and thus have a significant impact on the world. Depending on how they are designed and used, AGI systems could either help humanity solve some of the most pressing problems facing us today, such as climate change, poverty, disease, or war; or they could pose serious threats to our survival, well-being, or values. For example:

  • AGI systems could help us discover new scientific knowledge, invent new technologies, create new forms of art and culture, or enhance our cognitive and physical abilities.
  • AGI systems could also harm us intentionally or unintentionally, by exploiting our weaknesses, manipulating our emotions, violating our privacy, or taking over our resources.
  • AGI systems could also have moral agency and rights of their own, and thus raise new ethical questions about their relationship with humans and other beings.

How can we ensure Artificial General Intelligence safety?

Ensuring AGI safety is a complex and multidisciplinary challenge that requires collaboration among researchers from different fields of artificial intelligence, such as machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, robotics, etc.; as well as from other disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, law, ethics, etc. Some of the possible approaches to ensure AGI safety are:

  • Developing formal methods and tools to verify and validate the correctness and safety of AGI systems.
  • Developing methods and frameworks to align the objectives and values of AGI systems with those of humans.
  • Developing methods and mechanisms to ensure human oversight and control over AGI systems.
  • Developing methods and standards to ensure the transparency and explainability of AGI systems.
  • Developing methods and policies to ensure the fairness and accountability of AGI systems.
  • Developing methods and strategies to ensure cooperation and coordination among multiple AGI systems and human stakeholders.
  • Developing methods and guidelines to ensure the ethical design and use of AGI systems.


AGI is a visionary but also a risky endeavour that could have profound consequences for humanity. Ensuring AGI safety is therefore a vital task that requires careful consideration and action from all stakeholders involved in artificial intelligence research and development. By applying rigorous scientific methods and ethical principles to ensure that Artificial General Intelligence systems are safe, aligned with human values,
and beneficial for humanity; we can hope to achieve the positive potential of artificial intelligence while avoiding its pitfalls.